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2022 James J. Morgan Early Career Award for Great Achievements in Environmental Science & Technology:
08:00am - 11:05am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Bryan Brooks, Organizer, Presider; Dr. Wonyong Choi, Organizer; Margaret Mills, Organizer; Shane Snyder, Organizer; Julie Zimmerman, Organizer
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Division/Committee: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Science & Technology, Environmental Science & Technology Letters, ACS ES&T Engineering and ACS ES&T Water are continuing their annual symposium series with this ENVR session highlighting the work of award-winning environmental science researchers. The invited speakers include journal editors, best paper award winners, and the winner of the 2022 James J. Morgan ES&T Early Career Award, which will be presented during the session.

Monday
Introductory Remarks
08:00am - 08:10am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Monday
3657113 - Sociometabolic analytics for circular economy and carbon neutrality
08:10am - 08:30am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Gang Liu, Presenter
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Human civilization relies on the use of resources to fuel the multitude of socioeconomic activities satisfying human needs and well-being such as food, shelter, transportation, and communication. Industrialization and urbanization in the past centuries have been transforming vast amounts of raw materials from the biosphere and lithosphere to the anthroposphere in the form of buildings, infrastructure, and consumer goods. Such a continuing use of raw materials has raised concerns on both growing resource scarcity and supply constraint and increasing environmental challenges (e.g., waste boom and climate change) associated with materials production and consumption. Addressing these issues would therefore require a system understanding of the patterns, drivers, and implications of materials extraction, use, accumulation, and end-of-life management throughout our socioeconomic systems; and we call these systems approaches for complex problems “sociometabolic analytics”. The past two decades have witnessed an increasing amount of effort with such a sociometabolic perspective for mapping and informing societal circular, low carbon, and just transition in the emerging field of industrial ecology. In this talk, I will briefly introduce the use of sociometabolic analytics for understanding the nexus between material, energy, and emission systems and thus informing circular economy and carbon neutrality policy, with empirical cases on agrifood systems, metal cycles, and construction materials use at various geographical scales.
Monday
3654694 - New approaches to track nano- and microplastics fate and impacts: case study on plastics removal through the drinking water treatment chain
08:30am - 08:50am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Denise Mitrano, Presenter
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The natural environment is experiencing ever-increasing pressures from anthropogenic stressors, including anthropogenic particles. The term anthropogenic particles covers a wide range of materials, including those which are manufactured at the nano-scale (i.e. engineered nanomaterials), generated incidentally, or originate from the degradation of larger materials such as plastics. Understanding the fate, transport, biological interactions and environmental impacts of these particles has been the focus of my work, for which I have received this years’ James J. Morgan Early Career Award. I am interested in the development of new analytical techniques and experimental approaches to measure both engineered nanomaterials and nano- and microplastics; to characterize particles and elucidate their behavior in environmental and technical water systems. To highlight some of these approaches, a case study on the removal of nanoplastics (NPs) through the drinking water treatment chain will be presented in addition to an overview of other environmental systems which we investigate.
Microplastics detected in potable water sources and tap water have led to concerns about the efficacy of current drinking water treatment practices to remove these contaminants. It is hypothesized that water resources already contain NPs generated through the degradation of larger plastics, but due to analytical difficulties the detection of NPs is challenging. Here we investigated the behavior and removal of NPs through a conventional drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) including ozonation, sand and activated carbon filtration. For this purpose, the removal of palladium-labelled NPs, which can more easily be quantified, were assessed in batch ozonation, laboratory and pilot-scale sand and activated carbon filtration experiments. Amongst the different filtration media, NPs were most efficiently retained when aged (i.e. biofilm coated) sand was used, with good agreement between laboratory and pilot scale systems. The removal of NPs following multiple filtration steps in a municipal full-scale DWTP was modeled and removal efficiencies exceeding 3-log units were obtained for the combination of three consecutive filtration steps (rapid and slow sand filtration and activated carbon filtration). The results can serve as a baseline for assessing the performace of DWTPs to remove NPs from polluted water and the capability of current treatment infrastrucutre to provide plastic-free, potable water.

Monday
3659496 - Nitrate radical chemistry hinders new particle formation from monoterpene oxidation
08:50am - 09:10am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
While OH radicals and O3 play a key role in the oxidation of monoterpenes and ultimately new particle formation (NPF), NO3 radicals can be an important or even dominant oxidant in the atmosphere. NO3 initiated oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can produce a wide variety of multifunctional nitrate-containing compounds such as organonitrates (ONs). Results from field measurements indicate that 70% of the ONs observed in the boreal forest are formed from the NO3-initiated oxidation of biogenic VOCs, with NO3 chemistry being important even during daytime. Due to their semi-volatile/low-volatility nature, ONs can partition into the particle phase either by condensation onto pre-existing aerosol particles or by forming new particles. However, field and laboratory studies have suggested that formation might ONs reduce and/or hinder NPF.

To constrain, the fate and distribution of compounds produced from the NO3-initiated oxidation of monoterpenes, laboratory experiments were performed using a flow reactor at IRCELYON (CNRS, France) and using The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber located at CERN. Due to its importance in the atmosphere, α-pinene was selected as a model compound. A Q-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific, US) coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (CI) inlet was used for online analysis of the oxygenated VOCs generated from the oxidation of α-pinene by NO3 radicals using two different chemical ionization methods, i.e., nitrate-ion-based (NO3–) and ammonium-ion-based (NH4+) schemes. As O3 and NO3 chemistry coexist in the atmosphere, the experiments were performed under atmospheric relevant conditions with the injection of NO2 to mimic different O3/NO3 conditions (i.e., from O3 dominating to NO3 dominating chemistry). Overall, our results show that the presence of NO3 radical greatly impacts the distribution of α-pinene derived ozonolysis products, including the formation of nitroxydimers, dinitroxydimers, and ONs while suppressing the formation of the conventional dimeric products and highly oxygenated organic compounds (i.e., HOMs). The presence of NO3 radicals yields a substantial drop in the formation rate of new particles. Ambient observations further support laboratory findings and reveal the pivotal role of the oxidation capacity of NO3 radicals in the formation of new particles.

Monday
3649321 - Nano-enabled strategies to enhance plant tolerance to climate stress
09:10am - 09:30am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Peng Zhang, Presenter
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Plants in their physical environment face various types of abiotic stresses such as high salinity, drought, saturation, high temperature, cold, heavy metals, and biotic stress such as pest and pathogens. The abiotic stresses characterize the main cause of crop fiasco globally, contributing to more than 50% of the average loss for significant crops. Developing tolerant cultivars using genetic manipulation is the most important strategy currently to cope with these stresses; however, the overall progress is slow and complete success is not yet achieved due to the difficulty in identifying key genetic determinants of stress tolerance. A complementary approach is the use of nanotechnology to promote plant growth by mitigating stress-induced signalling pathways, and thus increase crop yields, although its full potential has not yet been discovered and the underlying mechanisms by which NMs enhance seed germination, provide resistance to pathogens and more are not yet fully understood which hampers its progress and widespread adoption. Recently, we used nano-CeO2 and nano-MoS2 to protect plants against various stress conditions, taking advantage of their capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are the major cause of cell death in plants under stress conditions. Our results showed that both nano-CeO2 and nano-MoS2 showed protective effects and such effects can be modulated or enhanced by modifying the physicochemical properties of the nanomaterials. We believe that nano-enabled solutions could provide simple and robust strategies to improve plant resistance to environmental stress because they are based on mechanisms that relies on the materials, which is distinct from genetic-based mechanisms that are highly affected by plant species and other environmental conditions.
Monday
Intermission
09:30am - 09:45am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Monday
3648473 - Defining the impact of microplastic on soil resilience
09:45am - 10:05am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Rachel Hurley, Presenter
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Soils are a critical component of the food-water-energy-climate nexus, underpinning global food security, moderating the global hydrological cycle, and representing a substantial carbon store. Many soil environments are under significant pressure and global soil degradation represents one of the major environmental and societal challenges in the 21st century. The concept of soil resilience has been emerging in the literature over the previous decades and is defined as the capacity to withstand perturbations resulting from a disturbance, without shifting to a significantly altered alternative ecological state. Soils are spatially extensive and cover 71% of the global land surface. Yet, soil resilience is largely governed by processes physically occurring at the micrometre scale.
Over the previous decade, microplastic (MP) has emerged as a contaminant of concern and several estimations have now identified soil systems as the main environmental recipient of MP. It is defined as small plastic particles between 5 mm and 0.1 µm in size and is typically composed of a diverse assemblage of particle morphologies and polymer types. MP has the potential to negatively impact soils by significantly altering the diversity and community structuring of micro-organisms, negatively impacting soil enzyme activity, and changing the physicochemical properties of soils, such as aggregation and soil moisture dynamics. Despite this, there remains a paucity of data on global soil MP contamination or the impact on soil functioning and health.
This talk will present the mechanisms through which MP may alter soil functioning and highlight the primary knowledge gaps which limit our understanding of the potential for MP to impact soil resilience. This will include a consideration of long-term temporal perspectives and the potential for using alternative materials, such as biodegradable polymers.

Monday
3651921 - Exploring the chemical exposome of pregnant women and the potential of sewage sludge to predict and evaluate chemical exposures
10:05am - 10:25am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Chemicals are part of our daily lives and we are exposed to numerous chemicals through multiple pathways. Relevant scientific evidence contributing to the regulation of hazardous chemicals require a holistic approach to assess simultaneous exposure to multiple compounds. Currently, the main way to obtain data on the exposure to organic chemicals is through human biomonitoring, that requires very complex and costly sampling campaigns. Finding efficient proxies to predict the risk of chemical exposure in humans is an urgent need to cover large areas and populations at a reasonable cost. We conducted an exploratory study to characterize the human chemical exposome in maternal blood and placenta samples of a population-based birth cohort in Barcelona (2018-2021). Ultimate HRMS-based approaches were applied including wide-scope target, suspect (for >2300 and >10000 chemicals, respectively) and non-target screening. Forty-two chemicals were identified including pesticides, personal care products or industrial compounds, among others, in the range of ng/mL and ng/g. In parallel, sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plants serving the residence areas of the studied population were also screened, showing correlations with the type and concentrations of chemicals found in humans. Our findings were suggestive for the potential use of sewage sludge as a proxy of the human exposure and its application in early-warning systems to prevent chemical threats.

Monday
3653380 - Multiphase buffer theory: Explanations of contrasts in atmospheric aerosol acidity and its applications
10:25am - 10:45am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Aerosol acidity largely regulates the chemistry of atmospheric particles, and resolving the drivers of aerosol pH is key to understanding their environmental effects. We find that an individual buffering agent can adopt different buffer pH values in aerosols and that aerosol pH levels in populated continental regions are widely buffered by the conjugate acid-base pair NH4+/NH3 (ammonium/ammonia). We propose a multiphase buffer theory to explain these large shifts of buffer pH, and we show that aerosol water content (AWC) and mass concentration play a more important role in determining aerosol pH in ammonia-buffered regions than variations in particle chemical composition. Our results imply that aerosol pH and atmospheric multiphase chemistry are strongly affected by the pervasive human influence on ammonia emissions and the nitrogen cycle in the Anthropocene.
The multiphase buffer theory can help clarify haze formation mechanisms and aid in policy making. For example, sulfate is the dominant driving species of the severe winter hazes in North China Plain, while its formation pathways is highly susceptible to aerosol pH. The multiphase buffer theory show that higher pH would occur during more severe pollutions, which favors the sulfate formation through NO2 and O3 oxidations. In moderate to mild pollutions, however, the lower aerosol pH favors pathways by H2O2 and O2 catalyzed by trasition metal ions. This highlighted the importance of NOx control in controlling severe haze pollutions.
The multiphase buffer theory also provides a framework to reconstruct long-term trends and spatial variations of aerosol pH simply with AWC and temperature. However, non-ideality in aerosol droplets is a major challenge limiting its broad applications. To address this issue, we introduced a non-ideality correction factor and proposed a parameterization method. With this correction, the buffer theory can well reproduce the pH variations predicted by comprehensive thermodynamic models in the ammonia-buffered regime.

Monday
Discussion
10:45am - 11:00am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Monday
Concluding Remarks
11:00am - 11:05am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 21, 2022 | Location: Gallery 1 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

2022 Outstanding Achievements in Environmental Science & Technology Award:
08:00am - 11:20am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Bryan Brooks, Organizer, Presider; Dr. Wonyong Choi, Organizer; Margaret Mills, Organizer; Shane Snyder, Organizer; Julie Zimmerman, Organizer
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Division/Committee: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Science & Technology, Environmental Science & Technology Letters, ACS ES&T Engineering and ACS ES&T Water are continuing their annual symposium series with this ENVR session highlighting the work of award-winning environmental science researchers. The invited speakers include journal editors, best paper award winners, and the winner of the 2022 Outstanding Achievements in Environmental Science & Technology Award, which will be presented during the session.

Tuesday
Introductory Remarks
08:00am - 08:20am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Tuesday
3654778 - Phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and the plant microbiome
08:20am - 09:00am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Jerald Schnoor, Presenter
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Phytoremediation, using plants to help clean the environment, has become mainstream practice over the past 25 years. Usually microbes in the rhizosphere of trees and grasses provide the ecosystem service of biodegrading target organic contaminants to less toxic or (even) inocuous end-products. Sometimes, the plant itself provides the enzymatic power for biodegradation of contaminants following uptake by roots and translocation to shoots/stems or leaves. Plants and microbes have co-evolved through symbiotic relationships that include nutrient fixation and bioavailability, exudates as substrates, plant protection from pathogens, and microbial production of plant growth hormones. Endophytic microbes which naturallly live in, on, and around the plant may sometimes be utilized to facilitate biodegradation of xenobioitics.Such interactions facilitate transformation of organic compounds in soil and groundwater, either through co-metabolic or metabolic degradation of contaminants. Fertilization or biostimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms has long been known as a strategy for enhanced bioremediation, while bioaugmentation is another strategy in which specific microbes are added to the rhizosphere environment (or subtracted?) to facilitate biodegradation. But how does one ensure that the desirable bioaugmented microorganisms will survive in the complex microbiome of the subsurface environment?

Here, we consider how to improve the survivability of target rhizosphere microbes to utilize xenobiotic organic compounds either as substrates via metabolism (as a sole carbon and energy source) or in fortuitous co-metabolic reactions where auxiliary substrates are introduced, or when plant exudates serve as primary substrates. Much like the use of probiotics in the human gut, we are trying to understand how to modify the plant microbiome into favorable community assemblages to accomplish the overall purpose of phytoremediation. Microbiome editing of the plant rhizosphere is in its infancy as a phytotechnology.

In this paper, we discuss the problem of 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated solvents as co-contaminants in a system planted with hybrid poplar and bioaugmented with bacteria capable of metabolic degradation. Bioenrichment with vitamins, introduction of auxiliary substrates, and establishment of consortia are investigated.

Tuesday
3666012 - Evolution of research on next-generation desalination and water purification membranes
09:00am - 09:40am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Water scarcity is one of the greatest global crises of our time. Increasing water supply beyond what is available from the hydrological cycle can be achieved by seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Highly effective, low-cost, robust membrane-based technologies for desalination and wastewater reuse are needed, with minimal impact on the environment. However, progress in current state-of-the-art water purification membranes has been limited. We will critically discuss and evaluate recent research efforts in the past 15 years to (i) lower energy consumption for water desalination by improving membrane water permeability, (ii) reduce the efficiency of water desalination via increased water-salt selectivity, and (iii) enhance membrane ion selectivity for applications at the water-energy nexus. The presentation will focus on the emerging area of ion selectivity where high precision ion separation is desired. We will highlight how insights from nanofluidics and ion-selective biological channels establish the basis for a new class of membranes with ion-ion selectivity. A few examples will be provided to elucidate the mechanisms of ion transport and selectivity in membranes with sub-nanometer pores. These include the transport of monovalent ions in reverse osmosis membranes and the role of host-guest chemistry in controlling the electivity of divalent metal ions. We will conclude with a discussion on research directions and critical challenges for developing ion-selective membranes
Tuesday
Discussion
09:40am - 09:50am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Tuesday
Intermission
09:50am - 10:05am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Tuesday
3648719 - Paper-based device for rapid and on-site wastewater surveillance
10:05am - 10:25am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Dr Zhugen Yang, Presenter
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE)has emerged as a powerful tool for early warning public health. However, it remains challenging for analysis of wastewater in particular for rapid and on-site detection, which is a highly demand for track down the infections. Rapid sensors are of significant importance for both chemicals (e.g. illicit drugs) and microbial analysis in wastewater (e.g. infection including SARS-CoV-2 for early warning of a pandemic). Here we present a low-cost, deployable paper-based biosensor device for rapid analysis of chemicals and pathogens for WBE. Following the demonstration of the paper-based device for field-testing of infectious in Indian local farm and for malaria testing in a primary school in Uganda in Africa, we will further show this device for the rapid analysis of pathogens in water and wastewater in a low resource setting (e.g., in quarantine hotel around London Heathrow airport). The device utilised a paper microfluidic for sample preparation and extract nucleic acid from various wastewater samples, followed by isothermal amplification for species-specific pathogen detection with a visual dye for rapid readout. This enables to capture of images with a mobile phone camera for a semi-quantification. This paper-based device is currently developing to trace the source of SARS-CoV-2 in a local treatment plant and near-source tracking for early warning of the pandemic, as part of a UK national wastewater epidemiology surveillance programme (N-WESP) for COVID-19.
Tuesday
3656790 - Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion
10:25am - 10:45am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Yifeng Zhang, Presenter
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA concentrations was first evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities and VFA levels from 1 to 30 mM (0.04 to 8.50 mA/m2, R2 = 0.97) and then from 30 to 200 mM (8.50 to 10.80 mA/m2, R2 = 0.95). The detection range was much broader than that of other existing VFA biosensors. The biosensor had no response to protein and lipid which are frequently found along with VFAs in organic waste streams from AD, suggesting the selective detection of VFAs. The current displayed different responses to VFA levels when different ionic strengths and external resistances were applied, though linear relationships were always observed. Finally, the biosensor was further explored with real AD effluents and the results did not show significance differences with those measured by GC. The simple and efficient biosensor showed promising potential for online, inexpensive, and reliable measurement of VFA levels during AD and other anaerobic processes.
Tuesday
3649215 - Enhancing scientific support for implementing the multilateral environmental agreements on chemicals and waste: Mapping policy needs for scientific evidence
10:45am - 11:05am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Zhanyun Wang, Presenter
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) play a fundamental role in achieving sound management of chemicals and waste at the global level. For example, 30 chemicals or groups of chemicals have been listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) for global elimination or restriction. However, as the MEAs have grown more complex over time, it is increasingly challenging for Parties, particularly low- and middle-income countries, to develop and implement national measures in accordance with the MEAs’ provisions and decisions. An online survey under the joint “From Science to Action” initiative under the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions identified several major science–policy gaps, including (1) data gaps and the lack of capacity to generate data in low- and middle-income countries, (2) the lack of national capacity to review and assess information, and (3) challenges in knowledge translating and making scientific information accessible to policy- and decision-makers.
This presentation builds on a series of reviews that analyze detailed needs for policy-relevant science under several MEAs on chemicals and waste. The goal is to highlight these needs in order to foster timely research and scientific support for implementing the MEAs. The target audience is not only scientists and practitioners from various disciplines of natural and social sciences and from all sectors (academia, civil society organizations, industry and governmental institutions), but also funding agencies. In brief, it discusses needs for scientific evidence related to existing policy processes set by the MEAs’ provisions and decisions, including both needs relating to the general implementation matters and needs relating to specific chemicals or implementation matters with specific policy time windows. Also, it looks into needs for scientific evidence that go beyond existing policy processes, but are nevertheless important in order to improve the overall effectiveness of the MEAs’ implementation. It further provides practical guidance on how scientists and practitioners may provide their support to the MEAs’ implementation, followed by a brief outlook.

Tuesday
Discussion
11:05am - 11:15am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Tuesday
Concluding Remarks
11:15am - 11:20am USA / Canada - Pacific - March 22, 2022 | Location: Gallery 2 (Omni San Diego Hotel)
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid