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Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water & Wastewater: Detection, Formation & Control:
08:00am - 10:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B401
Susan Richardson, Organizer; Chii Shang, Organizer, The Hong Kong University of Sci. Technol.; Paul Westerhoff, Organizer, Presider, Arizona State Univ; Prof. Xin Yang, Organizer, Sun Yat-sen University, Environmental Science
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Co-sponsor/Theme: Theme: Sustainability
Division/Committee: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry

This symposium will focus on the identification of emerging DBPs, the latest advances in the underlying chemistry of DBPs formation and technologies in eliminating DBP risks in water and wastewater treatment.

Sunday
Introductory Remarks
08:00am - 08:05am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B401
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Sunday
Revisiting bromine incorporation during chlorination of drinking water
08:05am - 08:35am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B401
David Reckhow, Presenter, Univ of Massachusetts
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The important role of bromide in disinfection byproduct formation has been recognized since the very earliest publications on DBPs in drinking water. Subsequent developments such as recognition that brominated DBPs may be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, increases in bromide levels in some raw drinking waters, and the likelihood of a new HAA9 standard have elevated the interest in predicting bromine DBP speciation. In this talk, I will summarize and attempt to integrate new information on factors affecting bromine incorporation, with special focus on reaction kinetics. Some of these data come from recent work at UMass by graduate and undergraduate students, and some from other research groups around the world. Our current knowledge of bromine incorporation into DBPs starts with basic kinetics and mechanism of reactions with model compounds. This information can be combined with current ideas on natural organic matter constituents, occurrence of bromide in raw waters, and water system operation to gain a better understanding of DBP speciation. Ultimately, better mathematical models are key tools that will help to manage exposure to the more toxic brominated DBPs.
Sunday
Establishing formation potential test conditions for assessing haloacetonitrile precursors in source waters
08:35am - 08:55am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B401
Amit Gajurel; Kazi Haider; David Reckhow, Univ of Massachusetts; Eric Dickenson; Dr. Erica Marti, Presenter, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that are formed during free chlorine (Cl2) or chloramine (CLM) disinfection of water. Despite being detected frequently in different water sources and showing a higher order of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as compared to their regulated counterparts, only a few studies have been conducted to determine relative sources of HAN precursors in source waters. DBP precursors are often assessed through formation potential (FP) testing, although the conditions (pH, Cl2/CLM dose, time) vary among DBP and type of test (e.g., uniform formation condition). HANs are known to undergo hydrolysis, with increasing hydrolysis rate as pH and number of halogen atoms increases. In addition, HAN stability is affected by chlorine residual, with increasing residual leading to a shorter half-life. Therefore, it is important to tailor formation potential conditions for HANs. Formation potential tests with free chlorine and preformed monochloramine were conducted with non-disinfected wastewater effluent at two pHs (7 and 8), three Cl2/CLM doses, and five reaction times (i.e., 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 days). After the designated reaction time, samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry for 10 HANs. As expected, HAN FP concentrations were higher at pH 7 compared to pH 8, and chlorination produced higher HAN FP as compared to chloramination. Concentrations of dichloroacetonitrile and bromochloroacetonitrile were greatest, indicating greater stability and/or preferred formation from precursors. It was observed that trihalogenated, monochlorinated, and iodinated HANs (trichloroacetonitrile, monochloroacetonitrile, and monoiodoacetonitrile) had low yields under all experimental conditions. This can be attributed to the lack of precursors and/or greater hydrolysis in the case of trihalogenated HANs. In general a higher disinfection dose at pH 7 resulted in maximum formation for most compounds; however, reaction time had varying effects on final concentration with some HANs continually increasing while other HANs peaked and decreased with time.
Sunday
Benzalkonium chloride is present in wastewater influent and is biotransformed to the potent N-nitrosodimethylamine precursor benzyldimethylamine during secondary treatment
08:55am - 09:15am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B401
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a probable human carcinogen and lifetime consumption of 0.7 ng/L is associated with a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk. NDMA forms through reactions between organic N precursors and chloramines, added to was as a disinfectant. Although some NDMA precursors are well known (e.g., ranitidine, methadone, dimethylamine), the full mass balance on precursors and NDMA formation is not yet closed. This research focused on the formation of NDMA from benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a surfactant that is present in detergents, disinfectants (particularly those used in surface cleaning) and thus in wastewater. Benzalkonium chloride was not previously thought to be an important NDMA precursor because it contains relatively unreactive quaternary N, but recent research has shown that aerobic heterotrophs cleave the alkyl chain at the N, resulting in benzyldimethylamine (BDMA), a well-known and highly potent NDMA precursor. We selectively cultured BAC consuming microorganisms and showed that the NDMA yield of the dissolved biotransformation products was ~85x times greater than the BAC. Measurements of BAC and BDMA in wastewater treatment plants across unit processes indicated that BAC is an important source of NDMA forming reactive N in wastewater. NDMA yield of the products peaked rapidly (hours) and declined over days indicating that the biotransformation product BDMA is further degraded to less reactive N and longer HRTs may somewhat decrease the NDMA FP of wastewater effluent.
Sunday
Effects of intermittent water supply and point-of-use disinfection with chlorocyanurates on DBP formation and exposure risk in low-income communities
09:15am - 09:35am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B401
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Disinfection research in low-income communities (here defined as low-income countries and low-income communities in middle-income countries) around the world has strongly prioritized pathogen inactivation, and rightly so. However, as disinfection becomes widely practiced in low-income communities, chronic health risks from exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are likely to increase. Factors affecting DBP formation that are specific to low-income settings remain poorly characterized due to a paucity of research as well as over-reliance on trihalomethanes (THMs) as an indicator. The objective of this research is to investigate the impacts of intermittent water supply and point-of-use (POU) disinfection practices on DBP formation through a field study in Dhaka, Bangladesh accompanied by bench-scale experiments. A concern of intermittent supply is that variation in distribution system pressure allows for intrusion of uncontrolled sewage and contaminated stormwater. This problem may be acute in areas such as Dhaka that experience extreme flooding. We conducted sampling campaigns in residential neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons. Using artificial sweeteners as a signal of wastewater intrusion, we identified a potential relationship of intrusion with increased formation of nitrogen-containing (N-DBP) classes at the tap. These water systems did not practice centralized disinfection; however, a separate study had installed disinfectant dosers on storage tanks of apartment buildings in the study area. These dosers delivered chlorocyanurates, an alternative chlorine disinfectant popular for POU applications (as well as swimming pools and cleaning products). We measured DBP formation in these systems and conducted bench-scale experiments to compare chlorocyanurates with chlorine bleach. Although chlorocyanurates reduced THM concentrations by ~10-20% relative to bleach in some cases, they promoted the formation of more toxic N-DBPs, Br-DBPs and I-DBPs. The mechanisms of these reactions are further investigated with controlled experiments. These findings have important implications for over 1 billion people served by intermittent water supplies, and for the many communities where centralized disinfection is not reliably practiced. In addition, the results highlight the need for more research on chlorocyanurate chemistry due to their widespread usage and recent implementation by several water systems in the US.
Sunday
Formation of N-nitrosoglyphosate from glyphosate and nitrite at neutral pH and occurrence in recycled wastewater
09:35am - 09:55am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B401
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. Roughly 250 million pounds are applied each year in the U.S. with more than 3.5 billion pounds being applied since 1974. During the same time, more than 19 billion pounds have been applied globally. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies glyphosate as a Group 1A carcinogen and it has an MCL of 0.7 mg/L in drinking water under EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Act. Its nitrosated analogue, N-nitrosoglyphosate (NNG), can occur in commercial glyphosate preparations as a byproduct and can form in soils where glyphosate is present at low pH (<6). Toxicity of NNG has not been evaluated by EPA due to the low reported prevalence as a byproduct in commercial formulations of glyphosate. The aim of this study was to determine whether NNG could form at conditions relevant to drinking water treatment where glyphosate may be present as a contaminant, or where glyphosate and nitrite may be present as co-contaminants due to agricultural runoff, and to determine whether NNG was present in advanced treated recycled water. We hypothesized that disinfection with monochloramine, and disinfection with free chlorine in the presence of nitrite, would lead to NNG formation from glyphosate. NNG was formed in the mg/L range upon the reaction of glyphosate with nitrite-N above 2 mg/L and at glyphosate concentrations above 100 mg/L at pH 8 in three days, and the initial NNG production rate was 0.384 ppb/min at 20 mg/L of nitrite-N and 100 mg/L of glyphosate. The presence of monochloramine or free chlorine did not greatly impact the yield of NNG in the presence of nitrite. However, greater concentrations of nitrite resulted in greater concentrations of NNG. In formation potential tests utilizing monochloramine and glyphosate at pH 8, NNG did not form in the absence of nitrite indicating the reaction is nitrite-dependent. At a detection limit of 0.5 mg/L, NNG was not detected in advanced treated recycled water or secondary wastewater effluent. Because N-nitrosamines typically occur at the ng/L concentration in potable waters, future work is aimed at reducing the method detection limit, determining occurrence in agricultural run-off, recycled wastewater for agricultural irrigation and conventionally-treated drinking water and determining the influence of other water quality parameters on the formation of NNG.
Sunday
Concluding Remarks
09:55am - 10:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B401
Division: [ENVR] Division of Environmental Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Seaborg Award Symposium in Honor of Sherry Yennello:
08:00am - 10:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B310
Dr. Lauren McIntosh, Organizer, Texas A&M University; Joe Natowitz, Organizer, Presider
Division: [NUCL] Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Division/Committee: [NUCL] Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
Sunday
First steps in the chemical evolution of the universe
08:00am - 08:30am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B310
Michael Wiescher, Presenter, University of Notre Dame
Division: [NUCL] Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The chemical evolution of the universe is dictated by nucleosynthesis processes in multiple generations of stars as the cauldrons of the cosmos. The first generation of stars burn on the ashes of the Big Bang, the primordial abundances of hydrogen, helium and a bit of lithium. The chemical analysis of the eldest observed stars, however shows a pronounced abundance distribution between carbon, oxygen to to calcium. The reaction chains bridging the mass gap of instability at A=5 and A=8 isotopes, rely on the alpha cluster configuration of light nuclei. These first steps in the chemical evolution of the universe will be discussed on the basis of new experimental data, which provide new insight in the complex and highly dynamic nucleosynthesis environment of first stars.
Sunday
Nuclear physics and the two-neutron star merger
08:30am - 09:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B310
Ani Aprahamian, Presenter, University of Notre Dame
Division: [NUCL] Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The neutron star merger event detected in August 2017 along with over 70 electromagnetic transients revealed a spectacular realization for humanity. The fact that this merger of such enormous explosive power shows evidence of r-process nucleosynthesis. There have been other gravitational wave detections resulting from two-neutron star mergers by the LIGO and VIRGO collaborations, however the GW170817 event remains Synthesis of heavy elements all the way to the rare-earth region of the chart of nuclides. The electromagnetic signatures for elemental synthesis went from the visible to the Infrared as it reached the rare earth metals. While it is expected that the process continued to the actinide region of nuclei, direct evidence is missing. Questions regarding the path to the actinides, the potential path to the super-heavy nuclei, and the role of fission remain unanswered.

This talk will focus on the possible, the probable, and the observable.

Sunday
The impact parameter and isospin dependence of the disappearance of flow
09:00am - 09:30am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B310
Gary Westfall, Presenter
Division: [NUCL] Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The disappearance of collective transverse flow can be related to the nuclear equation of state and in-medium nucleon-nucleon scattering. We will present experimental and theoretical results for Ar+Sc, Ar+Al, Zn+Al, 56Fe+56Fe, 58Ni+58Ni, and 58Mn+58Fe collisions at incident energies ranging from 35 to 155 AMeV. By comparing experimental results for the balance energy to predictions from transport models, we show that the nuclear mean field description must include momentum dependence. The balance energy is shown to depend on the in-medium cross sections. A model-independent verification of this dependence was done experimentally by varying the N/Z of the system while holding all other parameters constant. The balance energy changes with the isospin of the system in qualitative agreement with a transport model incorporating isospin-dependent nucleon-nucleon scatter and a mean field.
Sunday
Current status of the density dependence of the symmetry energy
09:30am - 10:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B310
Prof. Betty Tsang, Presenter, Michigan State University; William Lynch
Division: [NUCL] Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The large imbalance in the neutron and proton densities in very neutron-rich systems highlight the role of the nuclear symmetry energy so that it governs many aspects of neutron stars and their mergers as well as the reaction dynamics of heavy ion collisions. Extracting the density dependence of the symmetry energy therefore constitutes an important scientific objective. In this talk I will show the experimentally determined symmetry energy density functions over a range of density from 0.25-1.5r0 where r0 is the normal nuclear matter density, I will discuss the effects of recent PREXII 208Pb skin measurements and the symmetry energy constraints recently obtained from studying the charged pion spectral yield ratios at 1.5 r0 and their implications on neutron star properties.
CRT Young Investigator Award: CRT Young Investigator Award
08:00am - 09:55am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B313b - B314
Shana J. Sturla, Organizer, ETH Zurich; Shana J. Sturla, Presider, ETH Zurich; Christie Sayes, Presider, Baylor University
Division: [TOXI] Division of Chemical Toxicology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Division/Committee: [TOXI] Division of Chemical Toxicology
Sunday
Introductory Remarks
08:00am - 08:05am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B313b - B314
Division: [TOXI] Division of Chemical Toxicology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Sunday
Vaping chemistry and the environment
08:05am - 08:30am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B313b - B314
Robert Strongin, Presenter
Division: [TOXI] Division of Chemical Toxicology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Vaping tobacco and cannabis products has become increasing popular during the past decade. This is due, in large part, to perceived harm reduction. In addition, their prevalence has benefitted from aggressive marketing campaigns and products not subject to the same advertising restrictions and regulations compared to traditional smoking. Apart from concern about their impact on user health, two of the issues concerning these products include (i) how their emissions affect indoor air quality as well as (ii) how their disposal can impact the environment. In the former case, there has been a great deal of controversy, and in the latter case, relatively little is currently known. This presentation will include an overview of how emissions from these relatively new and emerging products and formulations may lead to concerning second hand exposures. In addition, the ingredients in the increasingly popular new disposable, high nicotine content, flavored e-cigarettes will be discussed in the context of their potential impact on the environment.
Sunday
Understanding how environmental factors influence the impact of emerging contaminants
08:30am - 08:55am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B313b - B314
Sherine Obare, Presenter, Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro
Division: [TOXI] Division of Chemical Toxicology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Anthropogenic nanoparticles are of great interest due to their importance in advanced technological applications. Increased usage of nanoparticles in industrial processes as well as in commercial products continues to raise global concerns regarding their adverse impact on the environment and on human health. A critical issue that arises in understanding the environmental health and safety concerns of nanoparticles lies in their method of preparation and the properties of the nanoparticles that arise as a result of different preparation techniques. The behavior and impact of emerging contaminants on the activity of microorganisms in the environment is affected by several factors. These factors play an important role in the persistence of microorganisms and the overall ecosystem. This presentation will focus on recent developments in our labs in which we have studied how the impact of functionalized and unfunctionalized metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on bacterial growth both in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter. Modulation of environmental parameters on how the nanoparticles impact microorganisms was studied. The impact of emerging nanoparticle contaminants on various microorganisms will be reported.
Sunday
Intermission
08:55am - 09:05am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B313b - B314
Division: [TOXI] Division of Chemical Toxicology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Sunday
Combination of a quantitative toxicity assessment tool and targeted disinfection byproduct screening for drinking water mixture quality evaluation and toxicity driver identification
09:05am - 09:30am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B313b - B314
Jingyi Wu, Presenter, Cornell University; Joshua Allen; Susan Richardson, University of South Carolina; Dr. Michael J. Plewa, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Stuart Krasner; Akram Alshawabkeh; April Gu
Division: [TOXI] Division of Chemical Toxicology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Quantitative Toxicity Assessment Tool and Targeted Disinfection Byproduct Screening for Drinking Water Mixture Quality
Sunday
Differential cytotoxicity of drinking water contaminant co-exposures against human intestinal and neuronal cells
09:30am - 09:55am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B313b - B314
Christie Sayes, Presenter, Baylor University; Dr. Jiaqi Liu, Baylor University; Sahar Pradhan
Division: [TOXI] Division of Chemical Toxicology
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Drinking water contains environmental contaminants such as disinfection byproducts (DBPs), leached metal ions, and pesticides. These chemicals are potentially harmful constituents which can cause potential adverse health effects to humans. In a series of studies, we investigated the cytotoxicity of binary mixtures of haloaromatic DBP plus lead ion, lead ion plus copper ion, and copper ion plus glyphosate, separately as well as in combination, to human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. Results show that the cytotoxicity of the individual constituents against Caco-2 and SH-SY5Y cells were significantly different than the cytotoxicity of binary mixtures. Haloaromatic DBP plus lead ion resulted in synergistic effects (i.e., the constituents were more toxic in combination as compared to the toxicity when inoculated separately). Lead ion plus copper ion resulted in an additive relationship (i.e., similar toxicities were observed when the constituents were inoculated in combination or separately). Copper ion plus glyphosate resulted in an antagonistic effect (i.e., the cytotoxicity decreased when the constituents were inoculated in combination as compared to toxicities induced separately). In general, constituents were more potent in neuronal cells than in gut cells at the same exposure doses. These data indicate that future prioritization of emerging drinking water contaminants must be considered in terms of their own toxicity as well as the combinatorial effects with other chemicals in water.
Sunday
MEDI Executive Committee Business Meeting
08:00am - 01:00pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B409
Division: [MEDI] Division of Medicinal Chemistry
Session Type: Business Meeting - In-person
Division/Committee: [MEDI] Division of Medicinal Chemistry
Advances in Nonlinear Optics at Interfaces:
08:00am - 09:20am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B312 - B313a
Alexander Benderskii, Organizer, University of Southern California; Yi Rao, Organizer, Utah State University; Elsa Yan, Presider, Yale University
Division: [PHYS] Division of Physical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Division/Committee: [PHYS] Division of Physical Chemistry

Interfaces are of fundamental importance in catalysis, energy storage and conversion, biological processes, environmental issues, and technological problems such as oil extractions. Understanding the molecular behaviors at interfaces is essential for both basic concepts and industrial applications. In the past decades, powerful nonlinear optical spectroscopy techniques have been developed and applied to reveal behavior of interfacial chemical systems on the molecular level. This progress deepens our fundamental understanding of interfacial chemistry and physics. This symposium will bring together both theoretical and experimental physical chemists who are interested in interfacial chemistry and physics.

Sunday
Introductory Remarks
08:00am - 08:20am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B312 - B313a
Division: [PHYS] Division of Physical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Sunday
Single-molecule interfacial electron transfer dynamics
08:20am - 09:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B312 - B313a
H Peter Lu, Presenter, Bowling Green St Univ
Division: [PHYS] Division of Physical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
We apply single-molecule high spatial and temporal resolved techniques to study the complex reaction dynamics associated with electron and energy transfer rate processes. The complexity and inhomogeneity of the interfacial ET dynamics often present a major challenge for a molecular level comprehension of the intrinsically complex systems, which calls for both higher spatial and temporal resolutions at ultimate single-molecule and single-particle sensitivities. Combined single-molecule time resolved spectroscopy, femtosecond ultrafast spectroscopy, and electrochemical atomic force microscopy (E-Chem AFM) approaches are unique for heterogeneous and complex interfacial electron transfer systems because the static and dynamic inhomogeneities can be identified and characterized by studying one molecule at a specific nanoscale surface site at a time. The physical nature of the observed multi-exponential or stretched-exponential ET dynamics in the ensemble-averaged experiments, often associated with dynamic and static inhomogeneous ET dynamics, can be identified and analyzed by the single-molecule spectroscopy measurements. Single-molecule spectroscopy reveals statistical distributions correlated with microscopic parameters and their fluctuations, which are often hidden in ensemble-averaged measurements. The interfacial ET activity of individual dye molecules showed fluctuations and intermittency at time scale of milliseconds to seconds. The fluctuation dynamics were found to be inhomogeneous from molecule to molecule and from time to time, showing significant static and dynamic disorders in the dynamics. The inhomogeneous electron transfer rate due to the interaction between a dye molecule and the semiconductor surface depends on the chemical and physical nature of both dye molecule and the semiconductor.
Sunday
Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy of clay nanoscrolls
09:00am - 09:20am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B312 - B313a
Division: [PHYS] Division of Physical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Nanoscrolls have applications ranging from technology to catalysis. Techniques like SEM and TEM are typically required to analyze the surface structures of nanoscrolls. Clay minerals are layered structures that can form as platelets or scrolls. The morphology of clay minerals influences the properties of the material - talc and asbestos are such an example. Understanding the surface structure of these minerals are key to understanding the properties of the materials. Surface specific spectroscopy techniques such as vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy can be applied to understand the structure of clay nanoscrolls. Vibrational SFG identified four unique hydroxyl features in the clay mineral nickel phyllosilicate. Orientational analysis of the hydroxyls determined that 140 - 164 degrees of the scroll is uncompensated. These results demonstrate the vibrational SFG spectroscopy can provide unique information about the surfaces of nanoscrolls.