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Remote & Virtual Learning for the Analytical Laboratory & Classroom:
08:00am - 10:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Thomas Spudich, Organizer, Maryville University; Mark Vitha, Organizer, Drake Univ; Mark Vitha, Presider, Drake Univ
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Co-sponsor/Theme: Theme: Resilience of Chemistry
Division/Committee: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry

This symposium will bring to light the variety of resources available for teaching analytical chemistry concepts and skills remotely, including experiments that students can do at home using specific chemicals found in everyday beverages and consumable food items and low-cost instrumentation and detection equipment. Other topics include using simulations to learn about analytical techniques such as HPLC, fluorescence, and chemical applications of microscopy. Presenters who have used these experiments and simulations will discuss their experiences, including what worked well and what educational opportunities remain in terms of teaching analytical chemistry concepts remotely.

Sunday
Online options for off-site learning in lower and upper-level analytical chemistry labs
08:00am - 08:30am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Thomas Spudich, Presenter, Maryville University
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The development and implementation of remote labs has been essential for a variety of reasons. First, most of Higher Education had some modified form of lab in some format to include functioning off-campus at all course levels during the spring of 2020, fall of 2020 and spring of 2021 semesters. During the summer of 2020, a subset group of ASDLIB met to discuss and develop resources for labs that can be taught off-campus/at home for high school, general chemistry, quantitative analysis and instrumental analysis courses. The group constructed labs and simulations that include finding the pressure inside an unopened carbonated beverage, a penny statistics lab, creating and using a 3D printed photometer for quantitative determination of dyes, gravimetric acid-base titrations and an Excel-based HPLC simulator. Other resources highlighted here from others include a signal-to-noise ratio exercise using virtual instruments created using LabView, MICROLab titrations, and an interactive web application highlighting NMR Fourier transform calculations. All of these resources, to include some supplementary material from the authors, can be found at remotelabs.asdlib.org and are freely accessible under a Creative Commons license.
Sunday
Inexpensive, safe, and very accurate titrations for the home analytical chemistry laboratory
08:30am - 09:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Peter Chen, Presenter, Spelman College
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Titrations are one of the traditional techniques covered in analytical chemistry laboratories. For a home laboratory, the cost of purchasing traditional glassware needed to carry out titrations can be relatively high. Furthermore, the use of glass introduces a safety concern. This talk covers the use of plastic needle nose bottles, microbalances, and water bottles for carrying out titrations in the home laboratory. In addition to being safer and relatively inexpensive (less than $30), this approach can provide greater accuracy than the traditional approach because the size of the delivered drops are smaller and the resolution of a balance is higher than that of a buret. Titration labs may be further developed through the use of inexpensive pH meters that cost less than $10.
Sunday
Inquiry-based analytical chemistry laboratory experiments using paper microfluidic technology for distance or in-person learning
09:00am - 09:30am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Kimberley Frederick, Presenter, Skidmore College; Dr. Marya Lieberman, University of Notre Dame; Renee Cole, University of Iowa; Andrea Van Wyck; Rachel M Roller, University of Notre Dame
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Perhaps the greatest challenge for students learning remotely is how to engage in authentic laboratory experiences, including those that develop scientific practices. Paper microfluidics has the advantage of using microgram quantities of reagents and can be tailored to conduct many of the methods in a typical sophomore-level analytical course. Furthermore, this flexibility makes it possible for students to engage in inquiry-based lab experiments that develop skills such as planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data and constructing explanations and designing solutions. The MICRO project has developed nine laboratory experiments using paper microfluidics along with student and instructor support materials. We will present an overview of this work along with insights from early adopters on how participation in the MICRO community has impacted their student learning in both remote and in-person laboratory settings. We will also report the impact of participation on faculty instructional practices.
Sunday
Facilitating course-based undergraduate research experiences in a remote environment using paper microfluidic device design projects
09:30am - 10:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Dr. Rebecca A. Hunter, Presenter, The College of New Jersey; Maury Howard; Kimberley Frederick, Skidmore College
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are a mechanism for teaching students important skills such as experimental design and assessment of data. It is this experimental flexibility that also makes CUREs particularly challenging to adapt to a remote or socially distanced setting. Paper-based microfluidic devices provide a safe and versatile platform for experimentation and can be adapted for teaching and research at a variety of course levels and contexts. This paper microfluidics technology was recently used to create new CUREs in both quantitative and instrumental analysis courses at three primarily undergraduate institutions. As part of this authentic inquiry experience, students were able to design, assemble, and evaluate paper analytical devices for the quantitative analysis of a variety of analytes, allowing them to gain experience with key analytical chemistry skills as well as more general process skills such as problem solving and critical thinking.
Division of Chemical Health & Safety Awards Symposium:
08:00am - 10:05am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B207 - B208
Kimi Brown, Organizer, Presider; Debbie Decker, Presider, Retired; Joseph Pickel, Presider, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Division: [CHAS] Division of Chemical Health & Safety
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Division/Committee: [CHAS] Division of Chemical Health & Safety
Sunday
Introductory Remarks
08:00am - 08:05am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B207 - B208
Division: [CHAS] Division of Chemical Health & Safety
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Sunday
Lessons learned from incidents that shaped my passion for safety
08:05am - 08:35am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B207 - B208
Robert Hill, Presenter
Division: [CHAS] Division of Chemical Health & Safety
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
I celebrate the opportunities that I have had to work in the health and safety arena for many years. Clearly over time many aspects of safety have improved, but the constant change of our world provides new hazards and new challenges that will test our ability to keep all of us safe. During my lifetime I have learned lessons from my own mistakes and experiences, as well as incidents that had profound effects on others. In this talk I describe an incident where I was almost killed, an incident where I was overexposed to a chemical, and other experiences that fueled my passion for safety. I will present conclusions and suggest ideas that might lead to new approaches to improve the state of safety of others in the future.
Sunday
Enabling and empowering students: Strategies for maintaining a strong safety culture
08:35am - 09:05am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B207 - B208
Ian Tonks, Presenter
Division: [CHAS] Division of Chemical Health & Safety
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The University of Minnesota Joint Safety Team has emerged as a standard-bearer for student-driven safety initiatives. In this talk, strategies for maintaining momentum within this type of program will be discussed from both a historical and personal perspective. Additionally, accident reporting metrics will be discussed in the context of new safety initiatives being carried out in the department.
Sunday
University of Iowa chemical safety and responsibility stewards: Finding our place in the chemistry department
09:05am - 09:35am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B207 - B208
Jessica L DeYoung, Presenter, University of Iowa; Lindsey Applegate; Hannah Nenning; Madeline Parker; Leah J Scharlott, University of Iowa
Division: [CHAS] Division of Chemical Health & Safety
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
University campuses around the country have created ‘joint safety teams’ (JSTs) of various stripes to supplement the research laboratory safety hierarchy. They fill a vital role by filling gaps in communication between front line researchers (graduate students) and higher-ranking decision makers (faculty). Some responsibilities of JSTs include disseminating information from faculty committees, liaising with campus environmental health and safety officers, developing or leading safety workshops, and generally promoting a culture of safe research practices. At the University of Iowa, our joint safety team is known as the chemical safety and responsibility stewards (CSARS). Our organization functions as most do but we are differentiated in graduate students being integrated into the core framework of the safety hierarchy. One example is when the COVID-19 pandemic began our organization stepped up to play a unique role by ensuring graduate students working as research and teaching assistants were provided with appropriate resources to work safely. The success of this effort shows the self-efficacy of student organizations. When given appropriate resources and a clear task, JSTs can make significant improvements in the working conditions of graduate researchers. Our contributions unrelated to the pandemic include recording first-year student safety training videos, creating demonstration outreach videos focused on safety, and organizing/hosting safety focused webinars. While we are still a young organization, we have found success in establishing our group as a contributing committee of the department within the greater JST network.
Sunday
Institutional structures and practices within academic chemical laboratories as predictors of safety behavior in individuals
09:35am - 10:05am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B207 - B208
Division: [CHAS] Division of Chemical Health & Safety
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Over the last two decades, there have been numerous high-profile accidents in academic chemical laboratories across the world which have each led to institutional self-reflection and calls-to-action through tragedy, heavy fines, and public outcry. As a result, many academic institutions intensified their official safety policies and restructured their safety administration. However, the changes in top-down leadership seen in academia have unfortunately resulted in little long-term behavioral change in bench chemists and principal investigators. In part, this may be due to a nebulous and disparate leadership structure which leads to an over-emphasis on compliance rather than collaborative, proactive engagement. To address these emerging issues, we are implementing a web-based, self-administered standardized stratified survey to collect information from Ph.D. candidates in departments of chemistry, stratified by institutional research status, funding status, and geographical location. We use the Research Laboratory Safety Behavior Survey (RLSBS) as a predictor of safe behavior on the individual level along with our new standardized survey to gather information about leadership structures, relationships, training environments, resource availability, and institutional accessibility and to make conclusions about which structures and practices correlate the most with safe behavior.
Remote & Virtual Learning for the Analytical Laboratory & Classroom:
10:30am - 12:30pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Thomas Spudich, Organizer, Maryville University; Mark Vitha, Organizer, Drake Univ; Thomas Spudich, Presider, Maryville University
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Co-sponsor/Theme: Theme: Resilience of Chemistry
Division/Committee: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry

This symposium will bring to light the variety of resources available for teaching analytical chemistry concepts and skills remotely, including experiments that students can do at home using specific chemicals found in everyday beverages and consumable food items and low-cost instrumentation and detection equipment. Other topics include using simulations to learn about analytical techniques such as HPLC, fluorescence, and chemical applications of microscopy. Presenters who have used these experiments and simulations will discuss their experiences, including what worked well and what educational opportunities remain in terms of teaching analytical chemistry concepts remotely.

Sunday
Development, implementation, and assessment of remote-flexible analytical laboratory experiments & projects: Pros, cons, and role in future instruction
10:30am - 11:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Dr. Joel F Destino, Presenter, Creighton University; Erin Gross; David Dobberpuhl
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
In the 2020-2021 academic year, instruction at Creighton University was mainly in-person. To accommodate students that were unable to attend analytical chemistry laboratories in-person due to self-isolation, or quarantine restrictions, we developed and implemented several remote-flexible experiments and group projects. For instrumental analysis laboratory in Fall 2020, fluorometric and amperometric analyses were conducted as conventional one-week experiments. We also implemented remote-flexible, multi-week, inquiry-based group projects using portable spectrophotometers, amperometric glucometers, and gas chromatographs. For the quantitative analysis laboratory in Spring 2021, colorimetric/spectrophotometric and potentiometric analysis experiments were conducted as conventional one-week experiments. Multi-week, group mini-projects using portable ion-selective electrodes, spectrophotometers, and paper-based analytical devices were implemented, as well. Overall, student data and assessment results demonstrate that the experiments were achievable, well-received, and yielded good analytical results. In addition to those findings, we will present practical considerations regarding each activity, including costs, limitations, ideas for improving experiment implementation, and thoughts on these experiments' role in the analytical chemistry laboratory curriculum moving forward.
Sunday
Pandemic response: A fully remote instrumental analysis course at Grinnell College
11:00am - 11:30am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Dr. Leslie J. Lyons, Presenter, Grinnell College; Lee Sharpe, Presenter
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
We will report on a fully remote Instrumental Analysis course taught at Grinnell College during the 2020-2021 academic year of COVID upheaval. In response to the pandemic, Grinnell shifted to fully remote learning and a 4 term (7.5 weeks each) academic calendar for the year. Lyons and Sharpe revamped their semester long Instrumental Analysis course to the remote, shortened format. Retained between the two formats was the content coverage (based on the 7th edition of the Skoog, Holler and Crouch Principles of Instrumental Analysis text), an inclusion of research literature, and a laboratory program that included most of the usual laboratory activities. Students worked in pairs on the video-based laboratory activities and did the same lab each session instead of rotating through 6 different lab stations based on limited instrumentation in the typical course. Lost in the remote course was any in-person work, hands-on instrument use, solution preparation by students, laboratory notebook work, and student developed laboratory projects. Formal reports and data analysis worksheets based on the labs replaced the prior laboratory notebook work. Enrollment was about one-third of typical with more seniors than juniors which may over-enroll the course the next time it is offered in a regular format in Fall, 2021. Classes and lab sessions were delivered M-F each week over the Webex platform and all course materials were provided to students via Blackboard which was also the electronic submission conduit for all student work. Students earned high scores on their assignments as these were all open-book; lab data analyses were highly coached and based on previously acquired ‘good’ data. Retention was excellent as all the students who were enrolled in the course at the end of the first week completed the course with grades which fulfilled their major elective course requirements.
Sunday
Building and Adopting the LibreTexts Platform as the Extensive Living Library Platform for Widespread Open Access Chemistry Education
11:30am - 12:00pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Delmar Larsen, Presenter
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The Libretexts project (https://LibreTexts.org) is a collaborative non-commercial Open Education Resource (OER) platform that simultaneously enables the dissemination and evaluation of existing resources and as a dynamic “courseware” to facilitate new education developments and approaches, with an emphasis on data-driven assessment of student learning and performance. Since its inception 13 years ago, the Libretexts has been exponentially growing and currently reaches over close to a million students per day and is the most visited chemistry website and online OER textbook resource in the world. Central to its success is the construction, dissemination, and adoption of faculty specific and freely accessible course and instructor designed "LibreTexts" that substitute for costly conventional textbooks in post-secondary courses. These Libretexts are assembled by incorporating content from an extensive network of existing STEM materials coupled with “home-grown” content.

This presentation will serve as a collaborative hands-on development discussion to introduce faculty to the LibreTexts Living library with “hands-on” demonstrations of recently capabilities including 3D visualization, online homework capabilities, annotation capabilities (hypothes.is and NoteBene) student online tracking, assessment, and numerical data analysis infrastructure. The application of LibreTexts for analytical chemistry courses will be emphasized including the progress in building the suite of OER textbooks for the ACS BS curriculum including the targeted “Introduction to Analytical Chemistry,” “Chemometrics,” and “Instrumental Analysis” texts. We will demonstrate how we are building the “Textbooks of the Future” by integrating R and python executable code into these texts via juypter system and the integration of summative homework assignments via the ADAPT homework system. Preliminary data analysis of how student interact with the platform as a Learning Analytics infrastructure to guide pedagogy and efficacy testing will be discussed.

Sunday
Incorporating UN Sustainable Development Goals into Analytical Chemistry
12:00pm - 12:30pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B308 - B309
Ginevra Clark, Presenter
Division: [ANYL] Division of Analytical Chemistry
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
A goal of chemistry education is to prepare students to address the multiple global crises we are facing, while attending to social injustice. Indeed, issues such as global warming and covid-19 disproportionally impact developing nations and POC in the United States. We will describe the incorporation of several environmental justice elements into an analytical chemistry course which includes in-class discussion, coursework that reflects social and cultural issues, and video assignments related to United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS). The UN SDGS provide a roadmap for sustainable development that can lead to peace and prosperity.

To this end, we partnered with the Latino Cultural Center at UIC to provide an environmental justice dialogue with the students. This dialogue highlighted the “just transition” principles, which we paired with assignments related to environmental justice issues in Chicago and beyond. For example, the students interpreted data from the Chicago city’s website related to the implosion of smokestacks on Easter Sunday 2020. The course took advantage of materials available related to the Flint water crisis, ocean acidification, and other issues to continue the dialogue.

The final project was to create a video based on one of several publications selected by the instructor. The topics included plastics in the ocean, air pollution, etc. The papers further described various analytical methods related to these issues. In their videos, the students had to describe the analytical processes described, in the paper, relate the work to at least two UN SDGs, and propose solutions. The students were introduced to the idea of “systems thinking” to highlight the interconnectedness of the UNN SDGs. They were further reminded of the “just transition” dialogue in their proposed solutions. Students uploaded their videos to the course management system, where other students could view and comment on the videos.

Advances in Renewable Materials:
10:30am - 12:30pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B406b - B407
Glenn Larkin, Organizer, Michigan Technological University; Falk Wolfgang Liebner, Organizer, Boku University Vienna; Amir Sheikhi, Organizer, Penn State University; Glenn Larkin, Presider, Michigan Technological University; Amir Sheikhi, Presider, Penn State University
Division: [CELL] Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Division/Committee: [CELL] Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials

General Oral Session for the Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials

Sunday
Introductory Remarks
10:30am - 10:35am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B406b - B407
Division: [CELL] Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Sunday
Towards a new understanding of the retro-aldol reaction for oxidative conversion of lignin to aromatic aldehydes and acids
10:35am - 11:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B406b - B407
Division: [CELL] Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Lignin is the most abundant natural bio-polymer after cellulose and accounts for 30% of non-fossil carbon on earth. The retro-aldol reaction is one of the key steps involved in the oxidative conversion of lignin to aromatic aldehydes and acids. In principle, the retro-aldol reaction can proceed in the absence of oxygen. In this work, a new approach based on the influence of oxygen on the oxidation of lignin was investigated. The effect of reaction chemistry, time, temperature, and lignin feedstock play a key role on the yield of aromatic aldehydes and acids. At 140°C, oxidation of softwood Lignoboost kraft lignin for 40 minutes results in combined maximum yield of 5.17% w/w of vanillin and vanillic acid. In comparison, using the new approach in which oxygen was charged for only 20 minutes during the 40 minute reaction improved this yield considerably to 6.95%. Further, yield improvement was obtained when applying this approach to different lignin feedstocks. Oxidation also increased the carboxyl content of lignin from 0.49 mmol/g to 1.41 mmol/g which represents consequential improvement. The current study provides further evidence showing that the oxidation reaction is a crucial pathway for lignin valorization.
Sunday
Photocatalytic rejuvenation enabled self-sanitizing, reusable, and biodegradable masks against COVID-19
11:00am - 11:25am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B406b - B407
Hongli Zhu, Presenter
Division: [CELL] Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
Personal protective equipment (PPE) has been highly recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for self-protection under the disastrous SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nevertheless, the massive utilization of PPE, especially the N95 respirators and sing-use masks, encounters significant challenges in recycling and sterilizing the used masks. To tackle the environmental pollution of currently used masks made of synthetic plastic, in this work, we designed a reusable, biodegradable, and antibacterial mask. The mask was prepared by electrospinning of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and cellulose nanofiber (CNF), and with subsequent esterification and then deposition of nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) and TiO2 mixture. The fabricated mask containing photocatalytic N-TiO2/ TiO2 can reach 100% bacteria disinfection under either light source (200-2500 nm, 106 Wm-2) as 0.1 sun simulation or natural sunlight for only 10 min. Thus, the used mask can be rejuvenated through light irradiation and reused, which represents one of the handiest technologies for handling used masks. Furthermore, the intermolecular interactions between PVA, PEO and CNF enhanced electrospinnability and the mechanical performance of the resultant mask. The obtained masks possess superior mechanical strength (10-fold elastic modulus and 2-fold tensile strength higher than a commercial single use mask). The comprised electrospun nanofibers with porous structures in between as well as strong electrostatic attraction enabled breathability (83.4 L min-1 of air flow rate) and superior particle filterability (98.7 %). The prepared mask also had excellent cycling performance, wearability, and stable filtration efficiency even after 120 min wearing. Therefore, this novel mask could be a great alternative to current masks to addressing the urgent need for sustainable, reusable, environmentally friendly, and efficient personal protection designs under the ongoing COVID-19 contagion.
Sunday
Withdrawn
11:25am - 11:50am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B406b - B407
Division: [CELL] Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Sunday
Free-radical polymerization of bio-based monomers
11:50am - 12:15pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B406b - B407
Maryam Mousa, Presenter; Eva Malmstrom, KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Anna Larsson Kron; Helena Bergenudd
Division: [CELL] Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid
The demand to produce materials from non-fossil based sources, i.e. bio-based raw materials, is increasing due to environmental concerns and limited resources. Bio-based building blocks result in new materials with sometimes unprecedented properties rendering them an interesting subject to study.
Two of these building blocks are the itaconic acid-derived α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone and the structurally similar α-methylene-γ-valerolactone which can be synthesized from the bio-based levulinic acid. Itaconic acid is a promising platform chemical that is produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates and it was listed by the U.S. Department of Energy as one of the top-value added chemicals from biomass. In this study, we report the free-radical polymerization of these two lactones into homopolymers or together with fossil-based (meth)acrylate monomers, methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate in different ratios. 2,2′-Azobisisobutyronitrile or lauroyl peroxide were used as initiators to investigate their effect on the polymerization behaviors. Polymerizations were monitored by monomer conversion, and the final polymers were characterized with respect to molecular weight, composition, glass transition temperature and thermal degradation. The incorporation of the monomers in the copolymers was significantly affected by the differences in reactivity ratios, sometimes to such an extent that the polymers exhibited a substantial compositional drift as corroborated by assessed thermal properties.
Increased thermal stability and tailored Tg’s were achieved by copolymerizing the lactones and the (meth)acrylates in different ratios, making the lactones interesting building blocks for synthesis of bio-based or partially bio-based materials.

Sunday
Panel Discussion
12:15pm - 12:30pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: B406b - B407
Division: [CELL] Division of Cellulose and Renewable Materials
Session Type: Oral - Hybrid

Exposure: Approaches & Processes for Preventing, Detecting & Monitoring Agrochemical Contamination in the Environment:
10:30am - 12:30pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: Zoom Room 01
Joel Coats, Organizer, Iowa State University; Maura Hall, Organizer, Iowa State University; Maura Hall, Presider, Iowa State University; Joel Coats, Presider, Iowa State University
Division: [AGRO] Division of Agrochemicals
Session Type: Oral - Virtual
Division/Committee: [AGRO] Division of Agrochemicals

Environmental exposures of organisms to agrochemicals need to be estimated at various scales to better inform decision-making for agrochemical registration and use. This session will bring together the latest progress in research on fate testing, detection, sampling and monitoring of agrochemical contamination in different settings, including both aquatic and terrestrial.

Sunday
Introductory Remarks
10:30am - 10:35am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: Zoom Room 01
Division: [AGRO] Division of Agrochemicals
Session Type: Oral - Virtual

Sunday
Design parameters for environmental monitoring studies of pesticides and other environmental contaminants
10:35am - 11:00am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: Zoom Room 01
John Purdy, Presenter, Abacuscsl
Division: [AGRO] Division of Agrochemicals
Session Type: Oral - Virtual
The monitoring of environmental contaminants in soil, air and water is an essential part of understanding and validating the findings of risk assessment and protecting against harmful effects. Some study types including soil dissipation have well defined regulatory guidelines and study protocols, but water monitoring is still a challenge based on recent EPA science advisory panels, and water monitoring designs can be quite varied. The concepts and practices of setting study design parameters, managing the time scale, integration of sample collection and analytical methods, quality control and assurance, completeness and efficiency, work flow analysis, cost control, ruggedness, and other aspects that contribute to the design, conduct and reporting of water monitoring studies will be reviewed with examples.
Sunday
Using the exposure and fate assessment screening tool (E-FAST) in aquatic risk assessments for antimicrobial pesticides in the USA
11:00am - 11:25am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: Zoom Room 01
Kathryn Korthauer, Presenter, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Division: [AGRO] Division of Agrochemicals
Session Type: Oral - Virtual
Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is tasked with conducting ecological risk assessments for pesticide registrations including antimicrobial pesticides. Antimicrobial use patterns regulated by the EPA include hospital disinfectants, pressure treated wood, antifoulant paints, material preservatives in textiles and paints, and slimicides in pulp and paper mills and cooling water towers. Since aquatic exposure from these uses can differ dramatically, the EPA uses a variety of use-specific calculations and models to determine exposure and risk to different taxa. For antimicrobial uses with the potential for point-source emissions (e.g., slimicides used in pulp and paper mills and cooling water towers), the Exposure and Fate Assessment Screening Tool (E-FAST) is typically used. This model accounts for various key inputs such as the application rate, removal within wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and stream-flows of waterbodies receiving effluent. However, refinement beyond a screening-level assessment is limited. This presentation will discuss how the EPA utilizes E-FAST within their antimicrobial risk assessments, advantages and disadvantages of using the model, and potential areas of refinement.
Sunday
Low-cost ultrasensitive method for PFAS detection through electrochemistry
11:25am - 11:50am USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: Zoom Room 01
Reem Khan, Presenter, Clarkson University Potsdam; Daniel Andreescu; Mohamed H. Hassan, Clarkson University; Emanuela Andreescu, Clarkson University
Division: [AGRO] Division of Agrochemicals
Session Type: Oral - Virtual
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of stable, chemical compounds, one of the most persistent environmental pollutants still in use in various industrial applications and commercial products worldwide. The strong carbon-fluorine bonds of PFASs make them resistant to physical and metabolic degradation leading to bioaccumulation and adverse health outcomes in humans and wildlife. PFAS have been shown a tendency to interact with blood proteins and resulting in several pathological responses including cancer. While widely used in manufacturing processes and consumer goods, PFAS are known to accumulate in agricultural plants and groundwater from where they can transfer to humans through the food chain. Given the adverse effect of PFAS and their presence at very low limits, the development of highly sensitive methods that can monitor their concentration in the environment at trace levels is essential for large-scale screening and quantification. Herein, we describe the development of a novel low-cost electrochemical detection method of PFAS using nanoparticles as electroactive probes that enable detection of the amount of PFAS down to ppt levels. The presentation will describe the development of the method, the interaction between the nanoparticles and selected PFAS compounds, and discuss the analytical performance and the detection mechanism enabling ultralow detection of PFAS. An example of application showing the capabilities of the method to detect PFAS in groundwater will be demonstrated. The low cost and high sensitivity of the method makes it a promising tool for the large-scale testing and screenings of PFAS compounds in a variety of environments including leachate contaminated groundwater and agricultural products.
Sunday
Quantification of double-stranded RNA molecules as model RNA interference biopesticides in agricultural soils
11:50am - 12:15pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: Zoom Room 01
Division: [AGRO] Division of Agrochemicals
Session Type: Oral - Virtual
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directs the degradation of homologous messenger RNA (mRNA), preventing the synthesis of a specific target protein. In recent years, RNAi has been adopted in emerging agricultural biotechnology to protect crops from pests by developing dsRNA molecules as biopesticides. When ingested or taken up by pests, dsRNA biopesticides trigger RNAi against specific mRNA inside the pest cells, resulting in reduced growth and increased mortality of the pest organisms. Upon use, dsRNA biopesticides will be released to receiving environments (e.g., agricultural soils) and pose potential ecological risks depending on their environmental concentration. Therefore, accurate quantification methods are needed to understand their potential ecological risks. Herein, we present a method that addresses key challenges in the application of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to measure dsRNA at environmentally relevant concentrations. Firstly, because dsRNA readily adsorbs to soil particles and RT-qPCR can only quantify dissolved dsRNA, we developed a method to efficiently extract dsRNA from soil particles to solutions. Secondly, because co-extracted organic matter from soils strongly inhibits RT-qPCR, we developed a cleanup protocol to remove those inhibitory components. With the adsorption and inhibition problems resolved, our method achieved a quantification limit of ≤ 0.02 ng-dsRNA/g-soil. This concentration is lower than the estimated concentration of dsRNA in soils (in the order of ~1 ng-dsRNA/g-soil), indicating the adequate sensitivity of the method for environmental dsRNA quantification. Applying our new method, we observed ≥ 75% of dsRNA degraded in soils within 8 hours. Our study contributes the first method able to quantify dsRNA biopesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations in agricultural soils.
Sunday
Discussion
12:15pm - 12:30pm USA / Canada - Eastern - August 22, 2021 | Room: Zoom Room 01
Division: [AGRO] Division of Agrochemicals
Session Type: Oral - Virtual